The significance of the bones in the body cannot be overemphasized.

Aside from serving as protection for the body’s organs, it also serves as attachment points for the muscles and makes movements like kneeling, lifting, running, jumping, and sitting possible.

When force is exerted on the bones after a blow or fall, it might not be able to withstand the trauma and will break.

The loss of integrity will more often than not result to bone fractures.

In some instances, bone fractures do not occur as a result of blows or falls.

In the case of those people who are suffering from osteoporosis for instance, it won’t require much for the bone to break. This is especially true if the bone has become brittle secondary to lack of calcium.

Bone fractures are classified based on some of the following factors:

  • The bone alignment
  • Whether complications in nerve or blood function as present
  • Whether the skin of the site of the injury is intact

Some of the most prevalent types of bone fractures include:

Broken Hip


Individuals who are 75 years old and above are highly susceptible to hip fractures.

While the injuries are often attributed to falls and trauma, some cases of broken bones can be traced back to osteoporosis.

In most cases, surgery will be the likely treatment option.

It will however depend on the fracture’s location in the femur.

Broken Hand or Fingers

Since the hands and fingers are often used in day-to-day activities, injuries to them are very common.

Aside from checking for any broken bones, health care professionals will also assess if there are damage to the tendons or the nerves.

If the fracture is complicated, the patient will most likely be referred to an orthopedic or hand specialist.

While not many are aware of it, the anatomy of the hand is very complex and will require specialized attention.

While some cases will only need splinting or casting, others will need surgery.

Compression Fractures

Compression fractures often result from injury, osteoporosis, or trauma.

  • Compression fractures that are secondary to injury, they can come with spinal cord or nerve root irritation.
  • People suffering from osteoporosis lack calcium in their bones. Aside from weak bones, vertebrae of patients suffering from osteoporosis also tend to get weak. This can result to difficulty in holding up against the force of gravity. Eventually, this can also lead to compression.
  • Compression fractures can also be attributed to falls as well as motor vehicle crashes.

Skull Fractures

The skull functions as protection for the brain.

While a massive blow is required to cause a fracture, fractures of any kind to the skull are not to be taken lightly.

Bleeding of the injured site and localized swelling are often considered telltale manifestation of skull fractures.

Skull fractures have different types:

Basilar skull fracture

This type refers to the damage that occurs to the bone situated at the base of the brain. Common indicators of basilar fracture include bloody drainage from either the ear or nose, bruising at the left ear (battle’s sign), and bruising around the eyes (raccoon eyes).

Depressed skull fracture

Depressed skull fractures occur when is the bone is broken, with the bone fragments pushed inwards.

While surgery might be an option, it would still depend on the depression depth and if there are damage to the brain tissues.

Open skull fracture

This type of skull fracture occurs when the scalp becomes lacerated and the possibility the wound will connect with the meninges becomes highly likely. The meninges are the brains’ fibrous covering.

In most cases, surgery will be performed to help ensure infection is kept at bay.

To know more about your fractures and how they can be treated accordingly, head to now.

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When cells divide at a rate that is both abnormal and uncontrollable, they form a mass of tissue or lump.

This mass of tissue is often referred to as tumor.

A tumor that forms or develops in the bones is called a bone tumor.

A bone tumor can be malignant or benign.

While the latter is considered non-fatal, it still comes with certain risks and may require treatment.

The former on the other hand is considered life-threatening as there is a possibility for the cancer cells to spread throughout the body.

Likely Causes

While unfortunate to note, no known definite causes have been identified for bone tumors yet.

However, likely causes include radiation, genetics, and bone injuries to name a few.

Osteosarcoma for one has been associated with the use of high doses of anticancer medications as well as high doses of radiation.

Patients with bone fractures repaired using metal implants have also been observed to be more susceptible to osteosarcoma.

Potential Symptoms

Some of the possible indicators of bone tumor include:

Pathologic Fracture

In some cases of undiscovered bone tumors, even a minor injury would be enough to break the weakened bone.

The condition is known as pathologic fracture and it often results to excruciating pain.

In some cases, swelling at the site of the tumor will manifest.


In some instances, bone tumors that are benign will not manifest any symptoms.

Oftentimes, treatment is not considered necessary.

However, when it starts to interfere with the patient’s function and movement, possible treatment options will be considered.

Dull Ache

One telltale sign of bone cancer is dull ache felt by patients in the affected bone.

In majority of the cases, the dull pain will manifest only occasionally at first.

However, overtime, it can become constant and severe.

In some cases, the pain becomes so severe that it wakes up afflicted patients at night.


It is also very likely for people with bone tumor to experience night sweats or fever.

In the absence of night sweats or fever, patients might notice tissue masses on some parts of their body.


Fractures, infections, and other conditions may sometimes resemble tumors

Fractures, infections, and other conditions may sometimes resemble tumors.

That being said, a variety of tests will be required to accurately diagnose the condition.

Some of the tests include:

  • Imaging tests

To gauge the size and the tumor’s exact location, an X-ray will be required.

Depending on the results, other imaging tests might also be recommended:

PET scan – can help determine the tumor’s location.

CT scan – can provide a series of highly detailed images that are taken from different angles.

MRI scan – can provide a detailed picture of the area affected.

Angiogram – can provide an X-ray of the blood vessels

  • Blood and urine tests

Blood and urine samples will be tested to assess the presence of tumors or other likely medical conditions.

The alkaline phosphatase test is often used to check for bone tumor.

When the tests reveal large quantities of the enzyme in the blood, it can be a sure indicator of bone tumor.

Biopsies are also sometimes recommended in order to get a better insight of the condition.

Either of the two kinds of biopsies might be requested:

  • Incisional Biopsy – this kind is also referred to as open biopsy. Unlike needle biopsy, this will require general anesthesia and is carried out in the operating room.
  • Needle Biopsy – the procedure is carried out by inserting a needle in the patient’s bone to remove a small part of the tissue. X-ray, MRI or CT scan results will be needed when performing needle biopsy so the location of the tumor can be accurately identified.

While benign bone tumors are common, having it checked by a doctor is still recommended. If you notice classic signs of a bone tumor, it would be best check with the experts at

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A broken bone or a fracture occurs when the force exerted that is exerted on the bone is more than it can bear

A broken bone or a fracture occurs when the force exerted that is exerted on the bone is more than it can bear.

Some of the common symptoms of the condition include severe pain and loss of function.

In some cases, bleeding around the site that is injured will also manifest.

There are different types of bone fractures.

Oftentimes, the severity of the condition will depend on several factors such as age, strength and direction of the force, the individual’s overall health, and the specific bone involved.

Some of the most common bone fractures occur in the ankle, wrist, and hip.

Older people however are more prone to hip fractures.


Some of the most common causes of bone fractures include:

  • Some cancers (can cause the bones to easily break)
  • Falls
  • Vehicle accidents
  • Sporting injuries
  • Certain bone conditions like osteoporosis


While bone fractures are not the same as dislocations, in some cases, it can be difficult to tell one from the other

While bone fractures are not the same as dislocations, in some cases, it can be difficult to tell one from the other.

Oftentimes, bone fracture symptoms will depend on the bone affected as well as the severity of the injury.

However, the following are some of the common manifestations of bone fracture:

  • Deformity
  • Pain
  • Swelling
  • Bruising
  • Inability to use the limb affected


There are different types of bone fractures.

The following are some of the most common:

  • Open or compound fracture – this type occurs when a wound that leads to the fractured site is present. It can also occur when the bone that is fractured juts out. Infection and external bleeding are likely complications that can result from this type of fracture.
  • Closed or simple fracture – this kind occurs when the bone that is broken does not pierce the skin.
  • Comminuted fracture – this type will take a long time to heal. The long healing period necessary can be attributed to the fractured bone shattering into small pieces.
  • Greenstick fracture – this type is often characterized by a slender and small crack. This kind of fracture is also very common among children.
  • Compression fracture – this fracture type occurs when two bones are forced against each other. The bones of the spine (vertebrae) are more prone to this type of injury. Old people with osteoporosis are also likely candidates.
  • Hairline fracture – this kind occurs in the foot and the lower leg. Hairline fractures often result from repeated stress and strain from activities like running or jogging.
  • Complicated fracture – When the injury also affects the surrounding structures of the bone, the condition is called complicated fracture. In most cases, there might be likely damage to the arteries, veins, or the nerves. Injury to the bone’s lining (periosteum) may also occur.
  • Avulsion fracture – this type often occurs in the knee and the shoulder joints. Avulsion fractures occur when pieces of the bone get pulled out and the muscle contractions wrench the tendon.

However, not all fractures occur only in the legs, arms, wrist, or hips.

Pelvis, chest, head, and spine traumas can also result to fractures in the skull and ribs.

Since these types of injuries are considered life-threatening, first aid treatments alone will not be enough.

Seeking immediate medical attention will be recommended.


Diagnosing bone fractures are done using X-rays.

In other cases, computer tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be recommended.

While broken bones will often heal on their own, medical treatment is sometimes necessary to help ensure all the pieces are properly lined up.

In cases that are complicated, surgery, surgical traction, or both might be necessary.

It is also vital that the bone recovers full sensitivity, strength, and movement.

Treatment options for fractures will often depend on severity.

Some of the likely options include:

  • Splints
  • Braces
  • Traction
  • Plaster casts
  • Pain relief
  • Surgically inserted metal rods or plates

Without proper medical attention and management, fractures can worsen. Prevent that from happening by visiting right away.

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When the cells in the body divide abnormally and uncontrollably, they can turn into a mass or lump

When the cells in the body divide abnormally and uncontrollably, they can turn into a mass or lump.

This mass or lump is called a tumor.

Tumors that form in the bones are called bone tumors.

Tumors that are not cancerous are called benign.

However, even if a benign bone tumor is often considered harmless and is not likely to spread to other parts of the body, it may still need to be treated.

While harmless, there is a tendency for benign bone tumors to grow.

The growth may result to compression of healthy bone tissues.

However, it is unfortunate to note that not all bone tumors are benign.

Some are classified as cancerous or malignant.

Left untreated, the cancer can end up spreading to other parts of the body.


While no direct causes of bone tumors have been identified, some of the likely culprits of the condition include radiation treatments, genetics, and bone injuries.


Some of the telltale indicators that signal the presence of bone tumors include but are not limited to the following:

  • Dull ache felt in the bone affected
  • Swelling at the tumor site
  • Fevers
  • Night sweats
  • Occasional pain that will eventually become severe and constant

Benign bone tumors

When the cells in the body divide abnormally and uncontrollably, they can turn into a mass or lump

Some of the most common benign tumors include:

Giant cell tumors

The kind of tumor often affects adults and can grow aggressively.

Giant cell tumors also often affect the bone’s rounded end.

This type of bone tumor is considered rare.


As far as benign bone tumor goes, this type is considered one of the most common.

In fact, this kind accounts for at least 40 percent of benign bone tumors.

The condition is also common among adolescents and teenagers.

This type of benign bone tumor also often manifests in the upper end of the upper bone (humerus), the lower leg’s upper end (tibia), and the thigh bone’s lower end (femur).


This condition occurs when a cartilage cyst grows in the bone marrow.

Echondroma often affects the long bones of the arm and the thigh as well as the hands and the feet.

Aneurysmal bone cyst

Aneurysmal bone cysts are characterized by blood vessel abnormality.

However, this condition often begins in the bone marrow and the cyst can grow rapidly.

Aneurysmal bone cysts can also be destructive as it can affect the growth plates.

Fibrous dysplasia

This condition is attributed to a gene mutation that will make the bones fibrous, making them more prone to fracture as a result.

Nanossifying fibroma unicameral

Considered as the only true cyst of the bone, this condition often occurs in the leg.

It’s also very common among adolescents and children.

Malignant bone tumors

Some of the most common types of malignant bone tumors include:


This condition is common among older and middle-aged adults.

This type of bone cancer also often occurs in the shoulders, hips, and the pelvis.


Common among adolescents and children, osteosarcomas often manifest around the hips, shoulder, and the knee.

The condition is otherwise known as osteogenic sarcoma.

Secondary bone cancer

Essentially, this means the cancer started somewhere in the body but eventually spread to the bone.

This condition is common among older adults.

Cancers that originate in the prostate, lung, kidney, breast, and the thyroid gland often spreads to the bones.

Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs)

This condition is common among adolescents.

However, in some cases, the tumor affects children as young as 5 years old.

ESFTs often develop in the skull, ribs, backbone, upper arms, and pelvis.

Apart from the bones, ESFTs can also manifest in soft tissues like the muscles, fat, and the blood vessels.

This condition has been observed to spread rapidly and are more common in females.

For more information and expert help on the care and management of bone tumors, head to now.

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Pediatric orthopaedics is the specialty that treats acquired or genetic-related bone defects and diseases that develop during gestation.

Children who are born with congenital bone diseases can use the help of a pediatric specialist.

Musculoskeletal and developmental disorders can also benefit from the expertise of pediatric orthopaedics specialist.

While some conditions correct themselves without treatment, other cases can become severe when not given the proper medical attention.

Enumerated below are some of the most common pediatric orthopaedic disorders:


Internal femoral torsion

This condition is considered one of the most common cause of in-toeing in children that are aged 2 years old and above.

Fortunately, the condition can be treated by correcting an abnormal sitting position.

Genu valgum (knock-kneed)

This condition is usually benign and will often correct itself when the child turns 8 years of age.

However, if the condition will still persist until the child turns 10, surgery might be required.

Genu varum (bow-legged)

This condition is often the result of a posterior hip capsule that is tightened.

When it does not get resolved when the child turns 2, osteotomy might be necessary.

Internal tibial torsion

This condition is considered the most common cause of in-toeing in children 2 years old and below.

Fortunately, once the child starts walking, the condition will resolve itself.


Hammer toe

Typically, this condition affects the second toe.

When it becomes painful, surgery might be recommended.

Ingrowing toenail

This condition occurs when the edge of the nail grows into the soft tissue surrounding it.

Depending on the severity, the condition can be managed through noninvasive treatments (warm soaks and antibiotics) to surgery.


This condition is considered very common.

Severity can range from minor soft tissue duplication to severe skeletal abnormalities.

In most cases, the likely treatment recourse for polydactyly is surgical removal.

Curly toes

This condition often affects the fourth and the fifth toes.

Inherited in most cases, this condition does not often manifest any symptoms.

Fortunately, as much as 25 to 50 percent of curly toe cases get resolved by the time the child turns 3 or 4 years of age.

Otherwise, surgery will be necessary.


Developmental dysplasia

This spectrum of disorders often affects the acetabulum, proximal femur, and the hips.

Early treatment and detection helps prevent long-term morbidity.

Septic arthritis

This condition is often the result of Staphylococcus aureus.

Treatment alternatives can include drainage, emergency aspiration, arthroscopy, and debridement (with antibiotic cover).

Transient monoarticular synovitis

This condition is considered one of the most common causes of limping.

It also often develops right after a respiratory infection.

Treatment alternatives can include rest, physiotherapy, and NSAIDs.

Perthes’ disease

This condition is often characterized by the femoral head’s idiopathic avascular necrosis.

Treatment interventions will usually include analgesia, bed rest, and bracing.

Surgery to redirect the head of the femoral ball (femoral varus osteotomy) will be required in some cases.


Planovalgus deformity

This condition is usually associated with cerebral palsy.

In ambulatory children with mild to moderate deformities, calcaneal lengthening is often the treatment recourse.

In non-ambulatory children with deformity that is severe, surgery might not be of any help and relapse rate is high.

Pes cavus

This condition is associated with a high arc that does not flatten even with weight-bearing.

Treatment alternatives can include physical therapy, surgery, and orthotics.

The treatment option chosen will depend on the severity of the condition.

Talipes equinovarus

Different abnormalities of the tibia, fibula and the bones located in the foot form a composite disorder called club foot.

Treatment option can include manipulation, splinting, casting, and surgery.

Is your child suffering from pediatric orthopaedic conditions? Please visit for proper management and help.


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In essence, limb salvage surgery is the kind of procedure done to remove bone and soft-tissue cancers in the limbs.

The procedure is carried out so amputation is avoided.


Aside from avoiding amputation and removing the cancer, limb salvage surgery is also carried out in order to retain the greatest degree of function available and maintain the patient’s appearance.

While the surgery is often done for bone tumors and bone sarcomas, it is also performed on individuals with soft tissue sarcomas.

Many years ago, the standard care for those patients with cancer in the limbs would often involve amputation of the extremity affected.

Fortunately, thanks to dramatic improvements in imaging methods and surgical techniques, patients no longer have to lose a limb in order to treat the cancer.

Over the years, limb salvage surgery has become the treatment option for patients with chronic degenerative bone and joint diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, those patients who are candidates for diabetic limb amputation, and those with acute and chronic limb wounds.


Also referred to as limb-sparing surgery, limb salvage surgery involves removing the cancer and an inch of the healthy tissue surrounding it.

If the bone has also been removed, it will have to be replaced.

The replacement can come from a donor body (cadaver) or from the body of the patient (autologous transplant).

Eventually, the transplanted bone will grow into the remaining bone.

Chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination of both will be used to shrink the tumor before the procedure is carried out.

The operation is done in three stages.

Surgeons will remove the cancer first as well as a margin of the surrounding tissue, a prosthesis or a bone graft is implanted when necessary, and the wound is closed by transferring soft tissue and muscles from other parts of the patient’s body.

Surgical Techniques

Soft tissue sarcomas

Limb salvage surgery is carried out on at least 80 percent of soft tissue sarcomas affecting the extremities.

The surgery will involve removing the tumor, lymph nodes, and the tissues where the cancer has spread.

An inch of the healthy tissue that surrounds the tumor will also be removed.

If the soft tissue sarcoma has spread to the lungs, the doctor will remove the original tumor, administer radiation or chemotherapy treatments, and then surgically remove the tumor.

Bone tumors

The malignant lesion and a cuff of normal tissue is removed in the treatment of low-grade tumors alongside any of its components.

In the case of high-grade tumors, bone, muscles, and tissues that are affected will also be removed.

Radiation and chemotherapy may be administered prior or after the surgery.

Radiation may also be administered during the procedure itself.

A special applicator will be placed against the surface where the tumor has been removed.

A tube with radioactive pellets will be exerted at the site of the tumor.

The tubes will have to be removed after several days.


After the surgery, blood flow and sensation in the affected extremity will be closely monitored.

Nurses will also need to watch out for possible signs of complications like pneumonia, deep-vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism.

Patients will also be given broad-spectrum antibiotics during the first 48 hours after the surgery.

Antiembolism stockings and prophylactic anticoagulants may also be recommended to ensure no blood clots are formed.

During the first 24 to 48 hours, a drainage tube will be placed in the wound to ensure blood and fluid do not accumulate.

The moment the postoperative pain is less severe, mild narcotics and anti-inflammatory medications will be given.

Is limb salvage surgery the appropriate treatment intervention for you? Visit to get trusted guidance from competent professionals.


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Joint pain can be discomfort, pain, and inflammation from any part of the joint like the tendons, muscles, bone, ligaments, and the cartilage.

In majority of the cases, joint pain is also the term given to arthralgia or arthritis.

Arthritis is characterized by inflammation or pain within the joint itself.

However, joint pain can also be attributed to several other conditions like gout, bursitis, osteoarthritis, sprains, strains, rheumatoid arthritis, and other injuries.

While it affects any part of the body, pain in the knee is the most common, followed by shoulder and hip pain.

As a person gets older, joint pain has the tendency to occur more often.

Joint pain can range from irritating to debilitating.

Acute cases will disappear after a few weeks while chronic cases can persist for several weeks or even months.

Unfortunately, however the short term the pain and swelling can be, it can still affect the patient’s life quality.

For those who are suffering from pain in the joint, some of the common treatment options can include:


For moderate to severe joint pain, prescription or OTC nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like naproxen sodium (Aleve) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) are often recommended for pain relief.

Patients who experience only mild pain san swelling, acetaminophen (Tylenol) will be prescribed.

For joint pains that are severe, a strong opioid medication may be prescribed by the doctor.

Other medication that might be given to help ease the pain can include:

  • Muscle Relaxants – given to combat muscle spasms. Muscle relaxants are often used with NSAIDs for more potent results.
  • Antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs – both interfere with pain signals.

Topical Agents

A substance found in chili peppers known as capsaicin has been known effective in relieving joint pains.

It works by blocking substance P, the substance known to help transmit pain signals.

It also triggers the release of body chemicals that help block the pain.

These chemicals are known as endorphins.

Ben Gay and other topical creams that contain methyl salicylate are also known to provide relief for joint pains.


When topical and oral medications won’t work, steroid medications might be the next treatment option recommended.

A steroid medication is injected into the joint every 3 to 4 months to help ease the pain.

This treatment route is often recommended for patients with joint disease, tendinitis, and arthritis.

Physical therapy

Physical therapists help patients with joint pain by strengthening the muscles around it, improving the motion range of the patient, and stabilizing the joint.

Techniques like ultrasound, heat and cold therapy, and electrical nerve stimulation may also be used.

For overweight patients, getting rid of the extra pounds might be recommended in order to take pressure off the painful joint.

While exercise is a good and effective way of losing the extra weight, not all exercises will do.

As a general rule of thumb, it is recommended that you stick to low-impact exercises like swimming and bicycling.

Doing low impact exercises is recommended so joint irritation is avoided.

Home Remedies

To relieve short term pain at home, the following are recommended:

  • Protecting the joint with the use of a brace or wrap
  • Resting the joint and avoiding activities that might cause pain
  • Putting ice on the painful joint for at least 15 minutes, several times daily
  • Compressing the joint using an elastic wrap

Applying ice to the joints that are painful have also been proven to relieve both the inflammation and the pain.

Using a heating pad or a wrap several time a day is also considered an effective way to combat muscle spasms around the painful joint.

If joint pain is keeping you from doing your day-to-day activities, please visit for help.


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Even if once considered a “high-tech” procedure, joint replacement is now deemed very common.

Statistics indicate that at least more than a million hips and knees are replaced annually.

And that statistic is in the United States alone.

While the figures are no doubt staggering, it is not exactly surprising.

For the right candidates, hip and knee replacement can be a life-altering procedure.

When is the procedure necessary?

While often considered the last resort, hip and knee replacement is deemed the best alternative when the following factors are present:

  • When there is pain and stiffness – it might be time for a new joint when the patient experiences difficulty walking, getting up from a chair, climbing the stairs, and doing routine activities. Also, if pain has persisted for more than 6 months already, a joint replacement surgery might be the best alternative.
  • When it affects the patient’s quality of life – apart from the pain, another key element that needs to be factored in is if the condition already has a significant impact on the patient’s daily routine. Is it limiting what the patient can do? Does it affect the patient’s mood? Does it impact how they go about their day-to-day routine?
  • When there is damage to the bone – X-rays alongside other imaging tests can be used to check if osteoarthritis or any other medical condition has taken a toll on the patient’s joints.
  • When there is obvious deformity – when the patient’s leg has become bowed or the knees have become severely swollen, joint replacement surgery will be the likely treatment option.
  • When other treatment alternatives have become futile – when all the other non-invasive treatment options (injections, medications, devices) have been exhausted, surgery becomes the likely option.

What key elements should be considered?

Even for those who are perfect candidates for hip or joint replacement surgery, it is still necessary that the following key questions are addressed:

Has the possible impact of the procedure already been considered?

The likely effects of surgery on the patient’s life and job should be taken into account.

When necessary, talking to family members and friends will be encouraged so assistance is available while patient is recovering.

Have other perspectives been taken into account?

Just like any surgeries that are major, getting a second opinion would be recommended.

This is especially true for those patients who have any doubts if the procedure is the best recourse possible.

Has the procedure been discussed with the surgeon?

For likely candidates, it is important that the specifics about the procedure will be discussed thoroughly.

If patient has any doubts and queries, they should not think twice about discussing it with their surgeon.

Asking for enlightenment regarding the procedure and what the recovery would be like is also advisable.

Has proper research been carried out?

There are different kinds of joint replacement procedures so doing research and reading up on the matter is recommended.

There are a lot of reliable websites that can provide essential information on the matter so candidates for surgery will have a clear idea of what they will be getting themselves into.

Is there assistance available while recovering?

Recovering from joint surgery when living alone can be very challenging.

For the first few weeks after the procedure, help will be necessary when preparing food, getting dressed, changing the bandage, and moving around.

If no family members or friends will be around to provide assistance, finding a facility where they can rehabilitate would be ideal.

What necessary changes do candidates for surgery need to do?

In order to ensure the best results are achieved, candidates should be willing to commit and work hard prior and post-surgery.

Patients need to also be aware that significant lifestyle need to be made like losing weight, exercising more, quitting smoking, and eating healthier, among other things.

If you think you are a candidate for joint replacement surgery, please visit


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The medical term given to a broken bone is fracture.

Fractures are very common.

Statistics show that an average person will have at least two fractures in their lifetime.

When the physical force exerted is way stronger than the bone, a fracture will most likely occur.


While there are different kinds of fractures, the main categories are closed, open, non-displaced, and displaced.

Displaced fracture occurs when the bone is snapped into two (or more parts).

However, when there is a crack but the alignment of the bone is still present, it is called a displaced fracture.

When the bone breaks through the skin, it is classified as an open fracture. However, if there is no puncture or wound, it is aptly called a closed fracture.

Other fracture types include:

Greenstick fracture

This type is very common among children. This is also considered an incomplete fracture characterized by a bent bone.

Transverse fracture

This type occurs when the broken piece of the bone is found at a right angle to the bone’s axis.

Buckled fracture

This is also commonly known as impacted fracture. This occurs when the bone ends are driven into each other.

Comminuted fracture

This type occurs when the bone has been broken into several pieces.


Common fracture symptoms can include but are not limited to the following:

  • Swelling
  • Bruising
  • Pain (especially when moved or when pressure is applied)
  • Deformity
  • Loss of function


Fractures often develop as a result of falls, blows, and other traumatic events.

Fractures that are caused by other illnesses like cancer are called pathologic fractures.

The condition weakens the bones and fractures of this kind will manifest without any trauma.

At least 1.5 million of fractures that occur annually is often attributed to osteoporosis.


In order to accurately diagnose bone fractures, doctors will require X-rays and will have to physically examine the area.

In some cases, however, X-rays will not suffice when checking for fractures.

For instance, in order to diagnose stress, hip, and wrist fractures accurately, a bone, MRI, or CT scan might be recommended.

In other instances, special tests like X-ray of the blood vessels, angiogram, etc. will be necessary to ensure there are no damage on the surrounding tissues.


In majority of the cases, immediate medical attention will be required for fractures.

Immobilization of fractures are carried out using a cast or a splint.

In certain cases, traction is used to minimize pain and promote healing.

In cases of open fractures, antibiotics are prescribed to keep infection at bay.

Rehabilitation will also be recommended the soonest possible time even if the cast is still in place.

This is to help ensure stiffness is prevented, muscle tone is maintained, and blood flow is promoted.

Once the cast or splint has been removed, swelling and stiffness can still be experienced in the area surrounding the fracture.

However, in most cases, it will disappear after a few weeks.

It will often take 4 to 6 weeks before strength is regained in the bone.

To play safe, it is advisable to ask the doctor regarding safe activities you can already do.

In most cases, key elements like the type of fracture and the patient’s overall health will be taken into consideration.


To ensure bone fractures are prevented, the following measures should be kept in mind:

  • Ensure the stairs are free from objects that can actually cause one to trip.
  • When doing recreational activities, proper safety equipment like helmets, safety pads, etc. should be worn.
  • For patients that are diagnosed with osteoporosis, talk to doctors about calcium supplements and other possible remedies and ask for exercises that can help enhance both strength and balance.

If you suspect you have fracture or a broken bone, visit for proper and competent help and guidance.




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A bunion is characterized by an unnatural and bony hump that develops in the big toe’s base.

It is also sometimes referred to as hallux valgus.

The condition may sometimes result to calluses and can be very painful.

Treatment options for the condition can vary.

It can also range from over-the-counter medications to bunions surgery.


Some experts believe that narrow, tight, and high-heeled shoes can contribute to the development of bunions.

Other likely causes can include:

  • Inherited foot type
  • Injuries of the foot
  • Congenital deformities


Bunion has several symptoms.

Some of the most common include:

  • Soreness, swelling, and redness in the area affected
  • Bulging bump on the outside of the base of the big toe
  • Thickening of the skin found at the base of the big toe
  • Corns or calluses
  • Persistent or intermittent pain
  • Limited movement of the big toe


While it’s easy to diagnose bunion based on the unusual shape and the pain, in some instances, other tests might be needed.

For example, the doctor might recommend an X-ray to assess the extent of the deformity.

Blood tests might also be necessary to check if the pain can be the result of a certain kind of arthritis.

Depending on the evaluation, the doctor will decide if orthopedic shoes, medications, custom made inserts, or bunions surgery might be the right treatment option.

While majority of the cases will not require medical treatment, seeking medical attention might become necessary if the following symptoms are present:

  • Persistent big toe or foot pain
  • Bump on the joint of the big toe
  • Limited movement of the big toe or foot

Risk Factors

Some of the most common risk factors for bunion include:

  • High heels – wearing footwear with high heels can force the toes into the front, crowding them in the process
  • Arthritis – pain secondary to arthritis can affect the way an individual walks and can make them more prone to developing the condition
  • Heredity – individuals with structural foot defects that are inherited may be more susceptible to developing the condition

Treatment Options

To reduce swelling and inflammation, over-the-counter pain relievers might be prescribed.

In some instances, a heating pad or a warm foot bath might also offer the much needed relief from the pain and discomfort.

If pain is not consistent and the condition is in its early stage, using the right footwear might be able to help.

Doctors may also suggest using bunion pads, shoe inserts, and splints as long as it will not put pressure someplace else or cause other foot issues.

Surgery for bunions or bunionectomy can also become the likely treatment option for several cases.

Generally, procedure will involve removal or realignment of the soft tissue and the bone.

The primary goals are relieving pain and restoring normal alignment.

Small wires, plates, and screws may be utilized to help hold the bone in place.

In most instances, regional anesthetic is used during the procedure.

Sedatives may also be used.

Typically, the surgery can last an hour or more.

Bunion Surgery Types

There are more than 100 types of bunion surgeries.

However, no type is considered best as surgeries would need to be specific to the condition being treated.

Some of the most common types of bunions surgery are:

  • Exostectomy – this entails removing part of the metatarsal head
  • Realigning of the soft tissues (ligaments) located around the joint of the big toe
  • Arthrodesis or fusion of the big toe joint
  • Osteotomy – involves creation of small cuts in the bones so it can be moved in a normal position
  • Implant insertion of artificial joint

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